Science: Goal 12

Learning Standards Early High School Late High School Back to Summary
A. Know and apply concepts that explain how living things function, adapt and change. 12.A.4a Explain how genetic combinations produce visible effects and variations among physical features and cellular functions of organisms. 12.A.5a Explain changes within cells and organisms in response to stimuli and changing environmental conditions (e.g., homeostasis, dormancy).
12.A.4b Describe the structures and organization of cells and tissues that underlie basic life functions including nutrition, respiration, cellular transport, biosynthesis and reproduction. 12.A.5b Analyze the transmission of genetic traits, diseases and defects.
   
12.A.4c Describe processes by which organisms change over time using evidence from comparative anatomy and physiology, embryology, the fossil record, genetics and biochemistry.
   
B. Know and apply concepts that describe how living things interact with each other and with their environment. 12.B.4a Compare physical, ecological and behavioral factors that influence interactions and interdependence of organisms. 12.B.5a Analyze and explain biodiversity issues and the causes and effects of extinction.
12.B.4b Simulate and analyze factors that influence the size and stability of populations within ecosystems (e.g., birth rate, death rate, predation, migration patterns). 12.B.5b Compare and predict how life forms can adapt to changes in the environment by applying concepts of change and constancy (e.g., variations within a population increase the likelihood of survival under new conditions).
   
C. Know and apply concepts that describe properties of matter and energy and the interactions between them. 12.C.4a Use kinetic theory, wave theory, quantum theory and the laws of thermodynamics to explain energy transformations. 12.C.5a Analyze reactions (e.g., nuclear reactions, burning of fuel, decomposition of waste) in natural and man-made energy systems.
12.C.4b Analyze and explain the atomic and nuclear structure of matter. 12.C.5b Analyze the properties of materials (e.g., mass, boiling point, melting point, hardness) in relation to their physical and/or chemical structures.
   
D. Know and apply concepts that describe force and motion and the principles that explain them. 12.D.4a Explain and predict motions in inertial and accelerated frames of reference. 12.D.5a Analyze factors that influence the relative motion of an object (e.g., friction, wind shear, cross currents, potential differences).
12.D.4b Describe the effects of electromagnetic and nuclear forces including atomic and molecular bonding, capacitance and nuclear reactions. 12.D.5b Analyze the effects of gravitational, electromagnetic and nuclear forces on a physical system.
   
E. Know and apply concepts that describe the features and processes of the Earth and its resources. 12.E.4a Explain how external and internal energy sources drive Earth processes (e.g., solar energy drives weather patterns; internal heat drives plate tectonics). 12.E.5 Analyze the processes involved in naturally occurring short-term and long-term Earth events (e.g., floods, ice ages, temperature, sea-level fluctuations).
12.E.4b Describe how rock sequences and fossil remains are used to interpret the age and changes in the Earth.
 
 
F. Know and apply concepts that explain the composition and structure of the universe and Earth's place in it. 12.F.4a Explain theories, past and present, for changes observed in the universe. 12.F.5a Compare the processes involved in the life cycle of stars (e.g., gravitational collapse, thermonuclear fusion, nova) and evaluate the supporting evidence.
12.F.4b Describe and compare the chemical and physical characteristics of galaxies and objects within galaxies (e.g., pulsars, nebulae, black holes, dark matter, stars). 12.F.5b Describe the size and age of the universe and evaluate the supporting evidence (e.g., red-shift, Hubble's constant).
   
   
*Those standards that are not addressed are covered at other time in the physics curriculum.