C &
I 332
Unit
Plan Project
Addition
and Subtraction Skills
First
Grade
Bridgette Blair
Annie Craig
Nicole
Kirkpatrick
Veronica
Thomas
This
unit plan is based on the overall mathematical concept of number concepts with
a focus on addition and subtraction for 1^{st} Grade. The primary focus
on almost every lesson and center activity within this unit is based on using
visual and physical manipulatives to show addition and subtraction equations.
It is easier for students of this age to be able to see what they are adding or
subtracting. Hopefully, this will make this concept easier for students to
relate to their everyday experiences and surroundings.
One
way that we hope to keep students engaged in this unit is be utilizing centers
during their math instruction time. Throughout the first three weeks of the
unit, the students will be introduced to a new center everyday that will then
be added to the list of choices for daily centers. Centers allow students time
to explore activities and lessons in their own unique ways. Students are able
to work at their own pace at centers as long as they complete their work during
the allotted time. They also have a chance to work with fellow classmates to
ask questions and discuss their work at centers. This encourages teamwork and
community within the classroom. It also allows time for the teacher to work
individually with certain students who might need extra help. We hope that
having some lessons be whole class format while others are center based will
allow students to enjoy the flexibility within the unit.
In order to make the activities in this unit fun
and engaging for students, we modified several lessons into game format. While
students are practicing their basic addition and subtraction facts during these
games, their focus is on the game rather than the repetition of equations. We
also included some lessons and centers that involved using edible manipulatives
for adding and subtracting. Food and candy always serves as a motivator for 1^{st}
Grade students! Also, we made every center or lesson based on some kind of
physical or visual representation of the numbers and equations. This was done
so that students are not intimidated by addition and subtraction problem because
they can relate them to situations in their everyday lives. We also used some
children’s literature to connect the mathematical ideas that they are learning
in the class to literature. This may help students that are not as strong in
math, but are stronger in the area of language arts, to reach the unit
objectives. We also incorporated some art into this math unit. This makes math
more interesting for students who would prefer to do art to math. While they
are doing their artwork, they are also learning their addition and subtraction
equations. Finding ways to incorporate
different subjects into a math unit are important in developing an interrelated
curriculum in the classroom.
Since the mathematical content area of “Number and
Operations” is based on the NCTM (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics)
content standard, our curricular unit also emphasizes the recommendations made
by the NCTM and Illinois Learning Standards/Goals, too. For example, the NCTM content standard for
“Number and Operations” holds that students in the grades of prekindergarten
through second grade should be able to, “Understand numbers, ways of
representing numbers, relationships among numbers, and number
systems…Understand meanings of operations and how they relate to one
another…Compute fluently and make reasonable estimates.” (NCTM web site). Therefore, our curricular unit contains
lessons that have been specifically designed to target these three main goals
of the NCTM content standard of “Number and Operations” for students in the
primary grades of elementary school.
While some of the lessons in our curricular unit focus on the
mathematical operation of addition, other lessons provide instruction in basic
subtraction skill practice (a mathematical operation). Furthermore, all of the lessons in our curricular unit include the use of
engaging and “handson” learning activities and experiences in which children
can participate. Therefore, young
elementary school students who complete the lessons outlined in our curricular
unit will be able to easily accomplish the three main goal listed under the
NCTM content standard of “Number and Operations.”
The topics contained in our curricular unit are mathematically “important” because they provide students with the fundamental building blocks for understanding how numbers and mathematical operations can relate to one another. The lessons contained within our curricular unit have been designed to help young children gain an understanding of the basic mathematical operations of addition and subtraction through participation in various “handson” and “learningcenter” based lessons! Therefore, the overall “scope” of our curricular unit encompasses the mathematical operations of addition and subtraction, as well as the recognition of singledigit and doubledigit numerals, and the ability of those numerals to be operated upon to complete a math problem. Furthermore, our curricular unit provides students with a seamless transition between the mathematical operations of addition and subtraction (keeping “in sync” with the NCTM goals!). When students have completed this curricular unit, it is our hope that they will meet the following behavioral/learning objectives:
*
Students will participate in various “handson” math lessons in which they will
be given the opportunity to work independently or in small groups to complete
the lessons/activities.
*
Students will be given the opportunity to “practice” the math skills acquired
through this curricular unit in their daily “learning centers” in the
classroom, when many of the activities described in this curricular unit will
be transformed into “math centers” in which students can participate during and
after the time at which this unit is taught.
* Students will be exposed
to various mathematical operations through the activities and lessons contained
within this unit, and will be given multiple opportunities to practice their
newly acquired math skills through assessment exercises (both formal and
informal), smallgroup activities, and independent work.

Week One

Week Two

Week Three

Week Four

Monday

DecorateaCookie: Students use
cookies and candy to practice finding the sum of three singledigit
numbers. The objective of this
activity is to find the sum of three singledigit numbers, for student to
recognize one to one correspondence. Assessment: the teacher asks questions related
to bigger, smaller, most, least, how many more, and how many less. Ask
students to write a vertical as well as a horizontal math sentence. 
Roll
Dice: This practices concepts of one digit addition from the week
before. The students will roll the two
dice, write down each number on the sheet given to them and add the two
numbers together. Assessment: The students will be assessed
using the worksheet based on their ability to line up the numbers vertically
and add correctly.

M&M’s  The first day of the school week will serve
as a "transition" for students from addition of singledigit to multidigit
numbers to the subtraction of singledigit numbers. After teaching this lesson, the teacher will
place the M&M’s Counting Book
and several packets of M&M candies in the classroom for students to
access as a learning center throughout the week during classroom “free time.” 
Boxed
Ball Throw: Students will stand in line and
throw two beanbags into separate compartments. The students will then spin
the spinner to find out what operation they will perform on the numbers. They
will record their work on worksheets provided. Assessment: Assessment
for the boxed ball throw will be to check to see if the student recorded
their equations for each throw and that their answers were right. 
Tuesday

Tic Tac Toe:
This lesson plan is a game that helps to reinforce any math lesson and
encourage positive reinforcement among peers. This game is based off the game
of Tic Tac Toe, but implements math into it. Assessment: (Informal,
Oral) The teacher asks the class who is correct and why.

Count
Bears: The students will count groups of different colored bears. There will
be a worksheet to guide them through the counting and in which they will
record their results. Assessment: The students will be assessed
through the thoroughness of the worksheet.

Roll Dice  For the second day of “subtraction of singledigit numbers,” the
students will play a subtraction math “game” with a die, as they will take
turns rolling a die two times (to reveal two numbers on each roll).

Subtraction Action!: The students will play a subtraction game using numbers
1 through 19. Assessment:
Assessment for this
activity will be informal. If students are actively participating and working
cooperatively in groups they will have reached the lesson objective. 
Wednesday

Ladybug:
This handson activity involves students in solving simple addition
problems. Using a poem, students will gain more practice on addition
concepts. Assessment: Informal,
Oral

Dry Erase/Magnets: The student will write vertically and solve the
addition problem on the card. The
students will work in partners for this center. Partners will verbally assess each other,
the teacher will monitor for assessment. 
Yummy Gummy Subtraction: Students will
participate in a subtraction lesson entitled, “Yummy Gummy Subtraction,” in
which they will count out gummy bear candies to solve simple singledigit
subtraction problems.

Counting
Wildflowers The book Counting Wildflowers by Bruce
McMillan is uses as the basis for this lesson. After reading this book to students, the
teacher will make up several problems to solve using the book as a context. Assessment: Students can then make their own
illustration to an addition or subtraction story problem about two kinds of
flowers. Their illustrations will serve as the assessment for this lesson.

Thursday

Addition Robbery: Place one hula hoop in each corner of a basketball
court. Have students make equal groups, facing the center, behind each hoop. Assessment: Informal Observation 
Paper
Bags: The student picks one card out of each bag, writes the numbers
vertically on the worksheet provided and adds them together. Assessment: The student must complete at
least four during the time provided.

Dry Erase Boards  On the fourth day of this school week, students will begin to solve
simple singledigit subtraction problems independently, as they will solve
math problems at their desks by writing the entire problem (and answer!) on
dryerase boards.

Doughnut
Race Before beginning, teacher will make two “doughnuts” out of white poster
board with 12 numbers written along the inside circles of each doughnut. These doughnuts will be taped to the board.
Two students will compete against each other, one at each doughnut. Assessment: Assessment
for this game will also be informal. If students are actively participating
and engaged, they will have met the objective of the lesson.

Friday

Math Baseball:
The students will work on addition in which the student will have to
answer math problems. Then the student enter the answer to the problem
and hit the "swing" button. If the answer is correct the
student get a hit single, double, triple, or home run based on the difficulty
of the problem. The game is over after three outs. Assessment: Informal
Observation


Math Bingo  For this final day of the
school week, students will participate in a math game that will help them to
review the subtraction skills that they have developed over the preceding
days of mathematics instruction. Assessment: There will be no assessment for
this lesson, as it will serve as a review to students of the skills that they
have learned throughout the week, and will hopefully help students to become
“creative” in their problemsolving approaches!

Balancing:
Students will show their knowledge of addition and subtraction using an
actual and virtual pan balance. Assessment: Informal Observation of
students using the balances.

Introducing One Digit Addition
Week One Activities: Addition
Centers
Centers will be
established the day they are listed under and remain part of the center
rotation for the remainder of the week.
The centers will build upon each other as the week progresses. At the end of the week, the students will be
rotating through five different centers.
The centers are based upon the math lesson for that day.
Monday
DecorateaCookie:
Students use cookies and candy to practice
finding the sum of three singledigit numbers.
The objective of this activity is to find the sum of three singledigit
numbers, for student to recognize one to one correspondence. Each student
spreads a layer of white frosting on a cookie. The frosting acts as glue in
this activity. Each student rolls one die at a time. After each roll, the
student takes the corresponding number of candy pieces from one type of candy (suggestions
listed in Materials section above) and decorates the cookie by gently pushing
the pieces into the frosting. After placing all three types of candy on the
cookie, the student writes a math sentence to represent his or her experience
on a strip of paper or index card; for example, "I used 3 + 5 + 9 = 17
pieces of candy on my cookie." The teacher prepares a form that students
fill in. Throughout the activity, the teacher asks questions related to bigger,
smaller, most, least, how many more, and how many less. Ask students
to write a vertical as well as a horizontal math sentence.
Tuesday
Tic Tac Toe: This lesson plan is a game that helps to
reinforce any math lesson and encourage positive reinforcement among peers.
This game is based off the game of Tic Tac Toe, but implements math into it. In
order for students to put their X or O on the grid, students must first
correctly answer a math problem. Draw a tic tac toe grid on the board. Write an X on the right side of the board,
and an O on the left side of the board as each groups logo. Have one student from each group approach the
board. Teacher calls out a question
having to do with the lesson. Students
write the correct answer as quickly as possible. The teacher asks the class who is correct and
why. The first student with the first
correct answer writes their group logo on the tic tac toe grid. The first team
to get a straight line of 3 is the winning team.
Wednesday
Ladybug Math:
This handson activity
involves students in solving simple addition problems. Using a poem, students
will gain more practice on addition concepts.
Ladybugs come in every shape and size.
Some are even old and wise. My
little ladybug is different from the rest.
Now can you pass the test? He has
___ spots on his right wing and ___ spots on his left wing. That's all I saw. How many spots are in all?
Thursday
Addition Robbery: Place
one hula hoop in each corner of a basketball court. Have students make equal
groups by adding the correct number of students to each group so that all of
the groups are equal by the end of the game, facing the center, behind each
hoop.
Friday
Math Baseball: The students will work on addition in which
the student will have to answer math problems. Then the student enter the
answer to the problem and hit the "swing" button. If the answer
is correct the student get a hit single, double, triple, or home run based on
the difficulty of the problem. The game is over after three outs. Can the
student hit a homerun? (http://www.funbrain.com/math/)
Day: Wednesday
Goals/Rationale:
1.
After completion of the lesson,
students will be able to add two groups of
manipulatives (one with a one
digit number and one with a two digit number) to find a sum.
2. After completion of the
lesson, students will be able to write the addition problem correctly,
vertically aligned.
3. Students will count the number of spots
on each ladybug wing, and add to find the total number of spots on the
ladybugs.
Focus Content
Area: Addition, Adding a one digit number to a onedigit number
Target Grade Level: First Grade
NCTM Standards:
K –2 Number &
Operations
Understand meanings of
operations and how they relate to one another: understand various meanings of
addition and subtraction of whole numbers and the relationship between the two
operations; understand the effects of adding and subtracting whole numbers.
Compute fluently and make
reasonable estimates: develop fluency with basic number combinations for
addition and subtraction.
Materials:
Introduction:
Students are seated on the
carpet. The students have just been
introduced to addition earlier this week.
I will review addition terms, such as add, plus, equals, etc. I will use manipulatives as objects to
count. For example, I will get five
blocks, and group them. "Let's
count these objects." (We will
count them separately) Then I will get
two more blocks, and group them.
"Let's count these objects."
(We will count them separately)
Then the class will count them together.
(We will count the objects separately and then count them all
together) "Who can help me add
these together based on what we just counted?" I will allow a student to
aid me in adding the number correctly. I
will explain the procedure of adding these two numbers together. We will
continue to do some examples as a class until the students are somewhat
comfortable with the idea. Then I will
go into the lesson. Then, I will read
the ladybug poem to introduce the lesson.
Ladybugs
come in every shape and size.
Some are even old and wise.
My little ladybug is different from the rest.
Now can you pass the test?
He has ___ spots on his right wing
and ___ spots on his left wing.
That's all I saw.
How many spots are in all?
Procedures:
1. Hand out the ladybug pieces. Students
use a large red circle as the body of a ladybug, one black circle as the head,
and other black circles as the ladybug's spots. Students will draw on their
ladybugs (if not predrawn) a black line to bisect the ladybug's body into two
equal sections (left and right) that are the ladybug's wings.
2. Next, students glue black circle heads
on top of the red circles. Then they add spots to each wing and glue them in
place.
3. Finally, students fill in the correct
numbers on the work sheet so that the numbers in the story problem correlate to
the spots on their ladybugs. Then they can glue the ladybugs and the story
problems to a large piece of construction paper. Instruct students to write the
total number of spots under their ladybugs. Glue the ladybugs so that they may
be lifted and the answer revealed.
Assessment:
Informal assessment will
be the primary assessment of the lesson.
The teacher will monitor the students' participation in the activity and
new center and answer any questions. Additionally, teacher will evaluate
students on the correctness of their ladybug story problems.
Introducing One and Two Digit
Addition
Week Two Activities: Addition
Centers
Centers will be
established the day they are listed under and remain part of the center
rotation for the remainder of the week.
The centers will build upon each other as the week progresses. At the end of the week, the students will be
rotating through five different centers.
The centers are based upon the math lesson for that day.
Monday
Roll Dice: This practices concepts of one digit addition from the week
before. The students will roll the two
dice, write down each number on the sheet given to them and add the two numbers
together. The students will be assessed
using the worksheet based on their ability to line up the numbers vertically
and add correctly. A sample worksheet
follows.
Tuesday
Count Bears: At this center, there will be
at least over ten blue bears and red bears and under ten green bears and yellow
bears. The students will first count the combination of blue and green bears,
then yellow and red, then red and green, the yellow and blue, etcetera. There will be a worksheet to guide them
through the counting and in which they will record their results. The students will be assessed through the
thoroughness of the worksheet. A sample
worksheet follows.
Wednesday
Dry Erase Board/Magnet Center: When the students get to this center, they will
draw a card from a bag. Each card has a horizontally aligned addition
problem. The student will write
vertically and solve the addition problem on the card. The students will work in partners for this
center. Partners will verbally assess
each other, the teacher will monitor for assessment.
Thursday
Friday
Sample Monday Worksheet
Roll Dice
Name:_________________________________Date:________
Sample Tuesday Worksheet
Count Bears
Name:_________________________________Date:________
1. Blue + Green =
2. Yellow + Red =
3. Red + Blue =
4. Yellow + Blue =
5. Red + Green =
Sample Thursday Worksheet
Paper Bag
Name:_________________________________Date:________
Week 2 of 4: One and
Two Digit Addition
Day: Wednesday
Goals/Rationale:
1.
After completion of the lesson,
students will be able to add two groups of
manipulatives (one with a one digit number and one with a two digit number)
to find a sum.
2. After completion of the
lesson, students will be able to write the addition problem correctly,
vertically aligned.
Focus Content
Area: Addition, Adding a one digit number to a two digit number.
Target Grade Level: First Grade
NCTM Standards:
K –2 Number &
Operations
Understand meanings of
operations and how they relate to one another: understand various meanings of
addition and subtraction of whole numbers and the relationship between the two
operations; understand the effects of adding and subtracting whole numbers.
Compute fluently and make
reasonable estimates: develop fluency with basic number combinations for
addition and subtraction.
Materials:
Introduction:
Students are seated on the
carpet. We have been learning and
practicing single digit addition, so now we
are going to begin learning how to add a single digit number to a two digit
number. I will put 1 +10 vertically
aligned on the board. The one will have
on object next to it and the ten will have ten objects next to it. "Let's count these objects." We will count the objects separately and then
count them all together. "Who can
help me add these together based on what we just counted?" I will allow a
student to aid me in adding the number correctly. I will explain the procedure of adding these
two numbers together.
Procedures:
1. We will continue to do
some examples as a class until the students are somewhat comfortable with the
idea.
2. The students will break
into pairs and receive a dry erase board, marker, eraser, and set of colored
magnets (one each pair).
3. The pairs will find a
place to sit and work together on adding one digit numbers to two digit
numbers. The teacher will put several
practice problems on the board and circulate around the room to ensure the
students are on task and everything is clear.
The students will be encouraged to make up their own problems and ask
questions if they are confused.
(Each day of the week, the
teacher adds a new center to the center rotation based on the lesson taught
that day.)
New Center
How to do it: Following the lesson, the dry erase board/magnets center will be
added to the math center rotation for the week.
When the students get to this center, they will draw a card from a
bag. Each card has a horizontally aligned addition
problem. The student will write
vertically and solve the addition problem on the card.
Conclusion:
At the end of Center
rotation, the students will each clean up their area. As a "pass" to the next subject,
each student will have to write an addition problem adding a one and two digit
number on a sheet of paper and hand it in to the teacher.
Assessment:
Informal assessment will
be the primary assessment of the lesson.
The teacher will monitor the students' participation in the activity and
new center and answer any questions.
Week 2 Assessment
Rubric
Since
the activities are primarily centerbased, the assessment for the daily and
weekly work will be primarily informal.
At each center, the students will record their results on a worksheet
provided for them. This completed worksheet
will be their "proof" of completing and participating in the center. They will receive credit for the worksheets
they complete. When possible the teacher
will monitor and record observations of the students' participation in each of
the centers. At the end of the week
(Friday) the students will be given a worksheet to complete of the type of
problems (adding one digit numbers to two digit numbers) they have learned and
practiced for the week. This will not be a "time test," the
students will be allowed to use the time necessary for them to finish. Below is a rubric on how each mode of
assessment will be recorded.
Credit 
Center Worksheets 
Teacher Observations/Participation 
End of Week Review Sheet 
Full (5pts) 
The worksheet is
complete and accurate. 
The student
participates 95 to 100% of the time during center work and the main lesson. 
The student
completes the sheet with 90100% accuracy. 
Partial (3pts) 
The worksheet is
partially completed and somewhat accurate. 
The student
participates at least 50% or more of the time in center work and the main
lesson. 
The student
completes the sheet with 60 to 89% accuracy. 
None/Incomplete (0 pts) 
The worksheet is
incomplete or not handed in at all. 
The student does
not participate at all in either the center work or the main lesson. 
The student does
not complete the sheet or completes the sheet with little to no accuracy. 
Week 3 of a 4Week
Unit:
Addition & Subtraction
Topic: Introduction to Subtraction of SingleDigit Numbers
Centers will be established the day they are listed under and
remain part of the center rotation for the remainder of the week. The centers will build upon each other as the
week progresses. The students will be able to access these math centers at the
end of the week, and will be able to practice their newly acquired subtraction
skills as they participate in the learning centers during classroom “free
time.”
*Monday: M&M’s  The first day of the school
week will serve as a "transition" for students from addition of
singledigit to multidigit numbers to the subtraction of singledigit numbers.
On this day, students will listen to a modeled "teacher readaloud"
of the M&M's Counting Book. This
book incorporates elements of simple singledigit addition and subtraction, and
provides a smooth transition between the two mathematical operations. After reading
this book, students will be paired into groups of two, and will be given a
small bag of plain "M&M" chocolate candies (one bag per group).
The students will then model the addition and subtraction operations as they
are read from the M&M’s Counting Book during a second reading
(done by the teacher). To assess the extent to which the students understand
simple subtraction problems done with M&M candies, the teacher will write
several simple subtraction problems on the chalkboard, and will allow for students
to use their M&M candies to solve the problems at their desks. After teaching this lesson, the teacher will
place the M&M’s Counting Book and
several packets of M&M candies in the classroom for students to access as a
learning center throughout the week during classroom “center time.”
*Tuesday:
Roll Dice  For the second day of
“subtraction of singledigit numbers,” the students will play a subtraction
math “game” with a die, as they will take turns rolling a die two times (to
reveal two numbers on each roll). The students will write the larger of the two
numbers on the top of a piece of paper, and will write the smaller of the two
numbers underneath the larger number. Then the students will subtract the two
numbers to reach their “difference.” The students will complete this exercise
in pairs, and will demonstrate their knowledge of subtraction to the teacher by
rolling the die two times for the teacher, and subtracting the two numbers to
reach their “difference” (a “showme” form of assessment). After teaching this lesson, the teacher will
place several dice, sheets of white paper, and pencils in the classroom to
create a learning center in which students can play “Roll Dice” during
classroom “center time.”
*Wednesday: Yummy Gummy Subtraction  For the third day of the school week, students
will participate in a subtraction lesson entitled, “Yummy Gummy Subtraction,”
in which they will count out gummy bear candies to solve simple singledigit
subtraction problems (please see the attached lesson plan for complete details
of this activity!).
*Thursday: Dry Erase Boards  On the fourth day of this school week, students
will begin to solve simple singledigit subtraction problems independently, as
they will solve math problems at their desks by writing the entire problem (and
answer!) on dryerase boards. The teacher will solve the problems at the
chalkboard, while students work independently at their desks, and the teacher
will assess students’ understanding of the manner in which to write and solve singledigit
subtraction problems by reading the answers that the students provide on their
individual dryerase boards (very informal assessment). This activity will help
students to practice and review the subtraction skills learned earlier in the
week without putting students “on the spot” in front of the class (in the event
that they do not yet know how to correctly solve singledigit subtraction
problems). After teaching this lesson,
the teacher will place several dryerase boards and colored markers (appropriate
for use on a dryerase board) in the classroom to create a learning center in
which students can create and solve their own simple subtraction math problems
during classroom “center time.”
*Friday: Math Bingo  For this final day of the school week, students will
participate in a math game that will help them to review the subtraction skills
that they have developed over the preceding days of mathematics instruction. To
begin, students will be paired into teams of two players. The students will be
given a set of game cards, with a single digit (between 0 and 9) written on
each card, a set of colored game chips, and a large “Bingo” math card (with
each square on this card containing a number between 0 and 9, too). The
students will take turns drawing cards from the game card pile and will then
choose two squares on the “Bingo” math card that could be subtracted to make a
difference equaling the same number on the chosen game card. The student will
then cover his/her two “Bingo” card squares with colored game chips, and the
first student to fill an entire row (vertically, horizontally, or diagonally)
with game chips will win the game! For example, if a student draws a game card
with the number “8” on it from the game card pile, he/she could cover squares
on the “Bingo” card of “9” and “1” for that particular turn (since 91=8).
There will be no assessment for this lesson, as it will serve as a review to
students of the skills that they have learned throughout the week, and will
hopefully help students to become “creative” in their problemsolving
approaches! After teaching this final
lesson of the week, the teacher will place several “Math Bingo” cards, a pile
of game cards, and a bag of colored game chips in the classroom for students to
play the “Math Bingo” game during classroom “center time.”
*Assessment for the Week:
Daily assessments have been outlined under each daily
activity/lesson. Many of the assessments
for the daily activities are informal “show me” assessment methods. Therefore, no additional assessment rubrics
or worksheets have been attached for the activities of this week!
Week 3 of 4 Week Unit: Single Digit Subtraction
Day: Wednesday (a lesson in
singledigit subtraction)
Goals/Rationale: Upon completion of this lesson, students will
have participated in an activity in which they will count out different numbers
of gummy bear candies, and will practice subtracting numbers of gummy bears as
they are “taken away” from the initial number. Students will also practice
solving singledigit subtraction problems during this lesson (i.e. onedigit
minus onedigit subtraction problems).
Focus Content Area: Subtraction; Subtraction of singledigit
numbers to obtain a singledigit answer
Target Grade Level: First
grade
NCTM Standards: K2 Number & Operations
“Understand meanings of operations and
how they relate to one another: understand various meanings of addition
and
subtraction of whole numbers and the relationship between the two
operations; understand the effects of adding and subtracting whole numbers.
Compute fluently and make reasonable estimates: develop fluency with basic
number combinations for addition and subtraction.”
Materials:
• Several bags
of colored “gummy bear” candies
• Chalkboard/dryerase board (for teacher
use)
• Chalk/markers (for teacher use)
Introduction: The teacher will open the lesson by
administering small bags of gummy bear candies to the students in his/her
class. The students will be given their own bag of candies with which to
complete the activity. The teacher will remind students that the candies are
not to be eaten at this time in the lesson, but that the candies will be
consumed at a later time!
Procedures: Next, the teacher will
use a piece of chalk or a marker to write a simple singledigit subtraction
problem on the chalkboard/dryerase board (i.e. 63 =). The teacher will
instruct the students to count out six gummy bear candies from their candy
bags, and will then ask the students to take three of those gummy bear candies
away from the initial pile of six candies. The teacher will ask the students,
“How many gummy bears are left?” The students will complete many singledigit
subtraction problems (i.e. 74, 83, 42, etc.), using the gummy bear candies
in their candy bags to solve the mathematical
problems, while the teacher solves the problems at the board. Teachers may want
to consider using an overhead projector on which they can place the colored
gummy bears to demonstrate and model the subtraction problems to the students,
while the students solve the same problems at their desks. This teaching
approach would benefit “visual” learners, who would be able to clearly “see”
the gummy bear candies as they are placed into piles and subtracted to make a
“difference!”
New Center:
How to do it: Following the lesson, the teacher will
place several bags of gummy bear candies and index cards with sample
singledigit subtraction problems
written on each index card in the designated “Math” areas of the
classroom. This will become a new math
learning center, and students will be allowed to choose index cards and solve
the subtraction problems with gummy bear candies during “free time” in the
classroom. However, the teacher must
stress to her students that the center will be taken away if gummy bear candies
begin to “mysteriously disappear,” as the students should be actively working
on math problems during this time, rather than simply eating candy from the
math center!
Conclusion: To end this
lesson, the teacher will inform the students that they may eat their
manipulatives (the gummy bear candies)!
Assessment: The teacher will assess the extent to which the
students understand how to use mathematics manipulatives to solve
simple singledigit subtraction problems by asking the students to solve
several subtraction problems independently at their desks (with the gummy bear
candies). The teacher will walk around the room as the students are solving the
subtraction problems, and will ask the children to write the answers
(differences) to the subtraction problems on a sheet of notebook paper. This
method of assessment will be fairly anonymous and will prevent students who are
still confused about how to subtract numbers from becoming embarrassed when
solving problems in front of their peers.
Week 4 of 4 Week Unit: Integration
Math
Activities for WEEK 4: Integration
Week 4 is when all of the skills and objectives from the
previous three weeks will be integrated so students can connect their addition
skills to their subtraction skills.
Students will be able to use both addition and subtraction in all of the
activities planned for the week. These activities will be done with the entire
class working together. They will continue to review the math centers that they
learned previously in the week. On Friday, students will be given a short test
to assess their addition and subtraction skills. This test will be based on all
of the centers they have done in the last three weeks.
Monday: Boxed Ball Throw Teacher will prepare a box that has several separate compartments
(such as a box to sell jars in). Each separate compartment will have a number
on it from 09. The teacher will also make a half and half spinner that has an
addition sign on one side and the subtraction side on the other. Students will
stand in line and throw two beanbags into separate compartments. The students
will then spin the spinner to find out what operation they will perform on the
numbers. They will record their work on worksheets provided. There will also be
a scorekeeper who tallies correct answers. There may be a time limit enforced
on answers if needed. Whoever has the most tally marks, wins! Assessment for
the boxed ball throw will be to check to see if the student recorded their
equations for each throw and that their answers were right.
Tuesday: Subtraction Action!  The students will play a subtraction game using
numbers 1 through 19. First, they will be put into groups of 4. The teacher
then gives students one number. Each group has to come up with as many
subtraction problems as possible that get that number for an answer in one
minute. After that minute, each group will get turns to share problems they
came up with. They will get one point for every problem they share. However, no
problems can be repeated and they must be problems that they had written down.
If a group gives an incorrect problem or gives a problem that was already
given, they lose a point. The group with
the most points at the end of a predetermined amount of rounds WINS! Then, the
students can find addition problems that result in the same number and play the
game again! Assessment for this activity will be informal. If students are
actively participating and working cooperatively in groups they will have
reached the lesson objective.
Wednesday: Counting Wildflowers The book Counting Wildflowers by Bruce
McMillan is uses as the basis for this lesson.
After reading this book to students, the teacher will make up several
problems to solve using the book as a context. Each page has a different number
of particular flowers on each page. Some pages contain two types of flowers and
these pages in easily be converted into equations. Ask students how many green
flowers and how many red flowers are on this page? How many total flowers are
there on this page? In groups, students can also figure out how many flowers
there are in the entire book. Students
can then make their own illustration to an addition or subtraction story
problem about two kinds of flowers. Their illustrations will serve as the
assessment for this lesson. If students have written a correct equation and
shown an accurate picture to match their equation, they will have reached the
objective of the lesson. If not, they will be asked to correct their mistakes
or do the illustrations over.
Thursday: Doughnut Race Before beginning, teacher will make two “doughnuts” out of white
poster board with 12 numbers written along the inside circles of each doughnut. These doughnuts will be taped to the board.
Two students will compete against each other, one at each doughnut. The teacher
will roll a die and that number will go into the middle of the doughnut. Then,
the teacher will spin the addition/subtraction spinner to tell students which
operation they will be doing. The students will race to put the answers for
each of the twelve numbers on the outside of the circle. Whoever finishes
first, with all correct answers WINS! The winner can stay until an opponent beats
them. Assessment for this game will also be informal. If students are actively
participating and engaged, they will have met the objective of the lesson. If
they are missing a high amount of problems on their turn, they will need extra
help with practicing their basic subtraction and addition facts before moving
on to the next mathematical concept.
Week 4 of 4 Week Unit:
Integration
Day: Friday
Goals/Rationale:
1.
After completion of the lesson,
students will be able to use actual and virtual pan balances to show different
subtraction and addition equations.
2. After completion of
this lesson, students will be able to explain how a subtraction problem can be
reversed into an addition problem and be able to write both equations.
Focus Content
Area: Addition and Subtraction using a balance
Target Grade Level: First Grade
NCTM Standards:
K –2 Number &
Operations
Understand meanings of
operations and how they relate to one another: understand various meanings of
addition and subtraction of whole numbers and the relationship between the two
operations; understand the effects of adding and subtracting whole numbers.
Compute fluently and make
reasonable estimates: develop fluency with basic number combinations for
addition and subtraction.
Materials:
Procedure:
1.
Display a
pan balance and review with the students how it operates. Explain that when the
scale balances, both sides have the same value.
2.
Ask a volunteer to place 7 connecting cubes in
the left pan of the balance beam and 4 connecting cubes on the other side. Ask
the students how many connecting cubes are needed on the lighter side so that
the scale balances. How would you explain to a younger child how to make the
sides balance?
3.
Accept and
model all student responses. When the response “3” is given, ask the children
what question “3” answers. [How many more than 4 is 7?] Then ask them to record
the answer using the equation form 7 – 4 = 3. Ask if they know what addition
sentence would also fit the situation. [3 + 4 = 7 or 4 + 3 = 7.] Continue with
other weights until the students are comfortable with the process. Suppose
you put 7 connecting cubes on the left hand side of the balance and 3
connecting cubes on the right hand side. How would you balance the scale by
adding cubes? What equation tells what you did?
4.
Divide the
students into pairs and give each pair a die. Assign each child one side of the
pan balance. Tell individuals to roll the die, read the number of dots on the
upward face, and place that number of connecting cubes on their side of the
balance. Then have partners work together to balance the scale by adding
connecting cubes in a different color. They should record the subtraction
equation that shows what they did. Have them repeat the activity several times.
Choose one equation that you wrote when you played the game. How does this
equation show what you did? Can you write another
5.
Now call
the class together and demonstrate how to use the online balance at illuminations.nctm.org/mathlets/shapebalance/index.html.
Assign some students to work with this site. [Because the shapes represent
different values, advise the students to use only one shape as they explore
with the online balance.]
6. While some children are using the online balance,
others can play “What’s in the Bag?” To start the game, provide pairs of
children with a pan balance, a paper bag, and some connecting cubes. Assign one
child to go first, placing up to 10 connecting cubes in the bag and placing the
bag on the left side of the scale. Then that child will place up to 10 loose
connecting cubes on the right side. The other child is to add connecting cubes
to the lighter side until the scale balances. Then each child writes
subtraction and addition equations to describe the situation. Have them repeat
the activity several times, switching roles each time. How did you find out
haw many connecting cubes were in the bag?
Assessment:
Showing the teacher that they understand the concepts of subtraction and
addition using a pan balance scale by answering the following questions
individually will assess students informally:
“Show Me Test”
·
If I put 10 cubes on one side of the balance and 5 on the other side, how
many cubes do you need to subtract from the right side to make the scale
balance? Show me on the balance. Show me on paper.
·
How many could I add to the left side to make it balance? Show me on the
balance. Show me that equation on paper.
·
Place a paper bag with 6 cubes in it on the scale. Can you make this scale balance for me? Show
me the addition and subtraction equation for what you just did.
Boxed
Ball Throw
First
Throw #1 Equation ___
 + ___ =
___
Throw #2 Equation ___
 + ___ =
___
Throw #3 Equation ___
 + ___ =
___
Throw #4 Equation ___
 + ___ =
___
Throw #5 Equation ___
 + ___ =
___
Throw #6 Equation ___
 + ___ =
___
Throw #7 Equation ___
 + ___ =
___
Throw #8 Equation ___
 + ___ =
___
Addition and
Subtraction Centers Quiz
Please
complete the following four problems:
1.
She has _____spots
on her left wing and ______spots on her
right wing. That’s all I saw.
How many spots are there in all? _______
2. Dice Addition
If you
rolled these two dice in the addition dice game, how
many
points would you have? _______________
3.
you have
left? ____________
Write the
SUBTRACTION equation that shows your problem:
_______ 
________ =
4. Counting
Flowers Activity
Show the
SUBTRACTION equation that shows this problem:
________  __________ =
_________
Assessment
Assessment is an essential part of achieving a
meaningful unit plan. In planning our
unit, assessment is included in our daily scheduling. Throughout the entire four weeks of planning,
we use both informal and formal assessment to measure the success and
comprehension of our students. In the
first week, the students will be informally assessed through their independent
work throughout the week. However, the
students will be formally evaluated using the grids and other manipulative used
throughout the week. In the second week,
worksheets will be used to formally examine the students understanding of the
subject matter. Informally, the students
will use peer support, monitoring by the teacher, and data in a computer
program. In the third week, students
will be assessed informally primarily through the usage of centers. The teacher will monitor the students’
understanding by supporting their learning in each center. On the contrary, worksheets will also be used
formally to assess the student’s knowledge of the theme. During the final week, worksheets will be
formally used to assess the students.
Scaffolding questions will informally gauge their comprehension. In closing, the assessment used during this
math unit plan varies in an attempt to comply with different learning
styles. The students will predominantly
be engaged through independent work. Subsequently,
informal assessment is a crucial element of determining each student’s
comprehension of the desired skills.
However, other formal assessments will be incorporated, such as
worksheets, to give the teacher a visible implication of each student’s
conception of the unit plan.