C & I 332

Unit Plan Project

Addition and Subtraction Skills

Bridgette Blair

Annie Craig

Nicole Kirkpatrick

Veronica Thomas

# Introduction & Rationale:

This unit plan is based on the overall mathematical concept of number concepts with a focus on addition and subtraction for 1st Grade. The primary focus on almost every lesson and center activity within this unit is based on using visual and physical manipulatives to show addition and subtraction equations. It is easier for students of this age to be able to see what they are adding or subtracting. Hopefully, this will make this concept easier for students to relate to their everyday experiences and surroundings.

One way that we hope to keep students engaged in this unit is be utilizing centers during their math instruction time. Throughout the first three weeks of the unit, the students will be introduced to a new center everyday that will then be added to the list of choices for daily centers. Centers allow students time to explore activities and lessons in their own unique ways. Students are able to work at their own pace at centers as long as they complete their work during the allotted time. They also have a chance to work with fellow classmates to ask questions and discuss their work at centers. This encourages teamwork and community within the classroom. It also allows time for the teacher to work individually with certain students who might need extra help. We hope that having some lessons be whole class format while others are center based will allow students to enjoy the flexibility within the unit.

In order to make the activities in this unit fun and engaging for students, we modified several lessons into game format. While students are practicing their basic addition and subtraction facts during these games, their focus is on the game rather than the repetition of equations. We also included some lessons and centers that involved using edible manipulatives for adding and subtracting. Food and candy always serves as a motivator for 1st Grade students! Also, we made every center or lesson based on some kind of physical or visual representation of the numbers and equations. This was done so that students are not intimidated by addition and subtraction problem because they can relate them to situations in their everyday lives. We also used some children’s literature to connect the mathematical ideas that they are learning in the class to literature. This may help students that are not as strong in math, but are stronger in the area of language arts, to reach the unit objectives. We also incorporated some art into this math unit. This makes math more interesting for students who would prefer to do art to math. While they are doing their artwork, they are also learning their addition and subtraction equations.  Finding ways to incorporate different subjects into a math unit are important in developing an interrelated curriculum in the classroom.

Since the mathematical content area of “Number and Operations” is based on the NCTM (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics) content standard, our curricular unit also emphasizes the recommendations made by the NCTM and Illinois Learning Standards/Goals, too.  For example, the NCTM content standard for “Number and Operations” holds that students in the grades of prekindergarten through second grade should be able to, “Understand numbers, ways of representing numbers, relationships among numbers, and number systems…Understand meanings of operations and how they relate to one another…Compute fluently and make reasonable estimates.” (NCTM web site).  Therefore, our curricular unit contains lessons that have been specifically designed to target these three main goals of the NCTM content standard of “Number and Operations” for students in the primary grades of elementary school.  While some of the lessons in our curricular unit focus on the mathematical operation of addition, other lessons provide instruction in basic subtraction skill practice (a mathematical operation).  Furthermore, all of the lessons in our curricular unit include the use of engaging and “hands-on” learning activities and experiences in which children can participate.  Therefore, young elementary school students who complete the lessons outlined in our curricular unit will be able to easily accomplish the three main goal listed under the NCTM content standard of “Number and Operations.”

The topics contained in our curricular unit are mathematically “important” because they provide students with the fundamental building blocks for understanding how numbers and mathematical operations can relate to one another.  The lessons contained within our curricular unit have been designed to help young children gain an understanding of the basic mathematical operations of addition and subtraction through participation in various “hands-on” and “learning-center” based lessons!  Therefore, the overall “scope” of our curricular unit encompasses the mathematical operations of addition and subtraction, as well as the recognition of single-digit and double-digit numerals, and the ability of those numerals to be operated upon to complete a math problem.  Furthermore, our curricular unit provides students with a seamless transition between the mathematical operations of addition and subtraction (keeping “in sync” with the NCTM goals!).  When students have completed this curricular unit, it is our hope that they will meet the following behavioral/learning objectives:

* Students will participate in various “hands-on” math lessons in which they will be given the opportunity to work independently or in small groups to complete the lessons/activities.

* Students will be given the opportunity to “practice” the math skills acquired through this curricular unit in their daily “learning centers” in the classroom, when many of the activities described in this curricular unit will be transformed into “math centers” in which students can participate during and after the time at which this unit is taught.

* Students will be exposed to various mathematical operations through the activities and lessons contained within this unit, and will be given multiple opportunities to practice their newly acquired math skills through assessment exercises (both formal and informal), small-group activities, and independent work.

# Monday

Decorate-a-Cookie:   Students use cookies and candy to practice finding the sum of three single-digit numbers.  The objective of this activity is to find the sum of three single-digit numbers, for student to recognize one to one correspondence. Assessment: the teacher asks questions related to bigger, smaller, most, least, how many more, and how many less. Ask students to write a vertical as well as a horizontal math sentence.

# Roll Dice: This practices concepts of one digit addition from the week before.  The students will roll the two dice, write down each number on the sheet given to them and add the two numbers together.  Assessment: The students will be assessed using the worksheet based on their ability to line up the numbers vertically and add correctly.

M&M’s - The first day of the school week will serve as a "transition" for students from addition of single-digit to multi-digit numbers to the subtraction of single-digit numbers.  After teaching this lesson, the teacher will place the M&M’s Counting Book and several packets of M&M candies in the classroom for students to access as a learning center throughout the week during classroom “free time.”

Boxed Ball Throw: Students will stand in line and throw two beanbags into separate compartments. The students will then spin the spinner to find out what operation they will perform on the numbers. They will record their work on worksheets provided. Assessment: Assessment for the boxed ball throw will be to check to see if the student recorded their equations for each throw and that their answers were right.

# Roll Dice - For the second day of “subtraction of single-digit numbers,” the students will play a subtraction math “game” with a die, as they will take turns rolling a die two times (to reveal two numbers oneach roll).

Subtraction Action!: The students will play a subtraction game using numbers 1 through 19. Assessment: Assessment for this activity will be informal. If students are actively participating and working cooperatively in groups they will have reached the lesson objective.

# Ladybug: This hands-on activity involves students in solving simple addition problems. Using a poem, students will gain more practice on addition concepts. Assessment: Informal, Oral

Dry Erase/Magnets: The student will write vertically and solve the addition problem on the card.  The students will work in partners for this center.  Partners will verbally assess each other, the teacher will monitor for assessment.

# Thursday

Addition Robbery:  Place one hula hoop in each corner of a basketball court. Have students make equal groups, facing the center, behind each hoop. Assessment: Informal Observation

# Math Baseball:  The students will work on addition in which the student will have to answer math problems.  Then the student enter the answer to the problem and hit the "swing" button.  If the answer is correct the student get a hit single, double, triple, or home run based on the difficulty of the problem.  The game is over after three outs.  Assessment: Informal Observation

Computer Center:  There will be two to three students placed at the computers for this center.  They will play a math game that works on one to one and one to two digit addition. Assessment:  The students' data will be saved on the computer.

# Week 1 of 4 Week Unit: Addition & Subtraction

Introducing One Digit Addition

Week One Activities: Addition Centers

Centers will be established the day they are listed under and remain part of the center rotation for the remainder of the week.  The centers will build upon each other as the week progresses.  At the end of the week, the students will be rotating through five different centers.  The centers are based upon the math lesson for that day.

Monday

Decorate-a-Cookie:   Students use cookies and candy to practice finding the sum of three single-digit numbers.  The objective of this activity is to find the sum of three single-digit numbers, for student to recognize one to one correspondence. Each student spreads a layer of white frosting on a cookie. The frosting acts as glue in this activity. Each student rolls one die at a time. After each roll, the student takes the corresponding number of candy pieces from one type of candy (suggestions listed in Materials section above) and decorates the cookie by gently pushing the pieces into the frosting. After placing all three types of candy on the cookie, the student writes a math sentence to represent his or her experience on a strip of paper or index card; for example, "I used 3 + 5 + 9 = 17 pieces of candy on my cookie." The teacher prepares a form that students fill in. Throughout the activity, the teacher asks questions related to bigger, smaller, most, least, how many more, and how many less. Ask students to write a vertical as well as a horizontal math sentence.

Tuesday

Tic Tac Toe: This lesson plan is a game that helps to reinforce any math lesson and encourage positive reinforcement among peers. This game is based off the game of Tic Tac Toe, but implements math into it. In order for students to put their X or O on the grid, students must first correctly answer a math problem. Draw a tic tac toe grid on the board.  Write an X on the right side of the board, and an O on the left side of the board as each groups logo.  Have one student from each group approach the board.  Teacher calls out a question having to do with the lesson.  Students write the correct answer as quickly as possible.  The teacher asks the class who is correct and why.  The first student with the first correct answer writes their group logo on the tic tac toe grid. The first team to get a straight line of 3 is the winning team.

Wednesday

Ladybug Math:  This hands-on activity involves students in solving simple addition problems. Using a poem, students will gain more practice on addition concepts.  Ladybugs come in every shape and size.  Some are even old and wise.  My little ladybug is different from the rest.  Now can you pass the test?  He has ___ spots on his right wing and ___ spots on his left wing.  That's all I saw.  How many spots are in all?

Thursday

Addition Robbery:  Place one hula hoop in each corner of a basketball court. Have students make equal groups by adding the correct number of students to each group so that all of the groups are equal by the end of the game, facing the center, behind each hoop.

Friday

Math Baseball:  The students will work on addition in which the student will have to answer math problems.  Then the student enter the answer to the problem and hit the "swing" button.  If the answer is correct the student get a hit single, double, triple, or home run based on the difficulty of the problem.  The game is over after three outs. Can the student hit a homerun? (http://www.funbrain.com/math/)

# Week 1 of 4 Week Unit: Addition & Subtraction

Day: Wednesday

Goals/Rationale:

1. After completion of the lesson, students will be able to add two groups of   manipulatives (one with a one digit number and one with a two digit number) to find a sum.

2. After completion of the lesson, students will be able to write the addition problem correctly, vertically aligned.

3. Students will count the number of spots on each ladybug wing, and add to find the total number of spots on the ladybugs.

Focus Content Area:  Addition, Adding a one digit number to a one-digit number

NCTM Standards:

K –2 Number & Operations

Understand meanings of operations and how they relate to one another: understand various meanings of addition and subtraction of whole numbers and the relationship between the two operations; understand the effects of adding and subtracting whole numbers.

Compute fluently and make reasonable estimates: develop fluency with basic number combinations for addition and subtraction.

Materials:

• black and red construction paper (precut, or enough to make one large red circle and many small black circles for each student)
• ladybug poem or story problem printed for each student
• glue, scissors, crayons, pencils

Introduction:

Students are seated on the carpet.  The students have just been introduced to addition earlier this week.  I will review addition terms, such as add, plus, equals, etc.    I will use manipulatives as objects to count.  For example, I will get five blocks, and group them.  "Let's count these objects."  (We will count them separately)  Then I will get two more blocks, and group them.  "Let's count these objects."  (We will count them separately)  Then the class will count them together.  (We will count the objects separately and then count them all together)  "Who can help me add these together based on what we just counted?" I will allow a student to aid me in adding the number correctly.  I will explain the procedure of adding these two numbers together. We will continue to do some examples as a class until the students are somewhat comfortable with the idea.  Then I will go into the lesson.  Then, I will read the ladybug poem to introduce the lesson.

Ladybugs come in every shape and size.
Some are even old and wise.
My little ladybug is different from the rest.
Now can you pass the test?
He has ___ spots on his right wing
and ___ spots on his left wing.
That's all I saw.
How many spots are in all?

Procedures:

1. Hand out the ladybug pieces. Students use a large red circle as the body of a ladybug, one black circle as the head, and other black circles as the ladybug's spots. Students will draw on their ladybugs (if not pre-drawn) a black line to bisect the ladybug's body into two equal sections (left and right) that are the ladybug's wings.

2. Next, students glue black circle heads on top of the red circles. Then they add spots to each wing and glue them in place.

3. Finally, students fill in the correct numbers on the work sheet so that the numbers in the story problem correlate to the spots on their ladybugs. Then they can glue the ladybugs and the story problems to a large piece of construction paper. Instruct students to write the total number of spots under their ladybugs. Glue the ladybugs so that they may be lifted and the answer revealed.

Assessment:

Informal assessment will be the primary assessment of the lesson.  The teacher will monitor the students' participation in the activity and new center and answer any questions. Additionally, teacher will evaluate students on the correctness of their ladybug story problems.

# Week 2 of 4 Week Unit: Addition & Subtraction

Introducing One and Two Digit Addition

Week Two Activities: Addition Centers

Centers will be established the day they are listed under and remain part of the center rotation for the remainder of the week.  The centers will build upon each other as the week progresses.  At the end of the week, the students will be rotating through five different centers.  The centers are based upon the math lesson for that day.

Monday

Roll Dice: This practices concepts of one digit addition from the week before.  The students will roll the two dice, write down each number on the sheet given to them and add the two numbers together.  The students will be assessed using the worksheet based on their ability to line up the numbers vertically and add correctly.  A sample worksheet follows.

Tuesday

Count Bears:  At this center, there will be at least over ten blue bears and red bears and under ten green bears and yellow bears. The students will first count the combination of blue and green bears, then yellow and red, then red and green, the yellow and blue, etcetera.  There will be a worksheet to guide them through the counting and in which they will record their results.  The students will be assessed through the thoroughness of the worksheet.  A sample worksheet follows.

Wednesday

Dry Erase Board/Magnet Center: When the students get to this center, they will draw a card from a bag.  Each card has a horizontally aligned addition problem.  The student will write vertically and solve the addition problem on the card.  The students will work in partners for this center.  Partners will verbally assess each other, the teacher will monitor for assessment.

Thursday

Paper Bag Center:  There will be two brown paper bags at this center.  One bag will contain small cards with two digit numbers on them.  The other bag will contain small cards with one digit numbers on them.  The student picks one card out of each bag, writes the numbers vertically on the worksheet provided and adds them together.  The student must complete at least four during the time provided.  A sample worksheet follows.

Friday

Computer Center:  There will be two to three students placed at the computers for this center.  They will play a math game that works on one to one and one to two digit addition.  The students' data will be saved on the computer.  Math games can be used from www.Aplusmath.com/games. There are several math games including addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.  For these purposes, the students would use only the addition games.

Sample Monday Worksheet

Roll Dice

Name:_________________________________Date:________

Sample Tuesday Worksheet

Count Bears

Name:_________________________________Date:________

1. Blue  +     Green   =

2. Yellow +    Red     =

3. Red       +     Blue   =

4. Yellow +     Blue   =

5. Red       +    Green =

Sample Thursday Worksheet

Paper Bag

Name:_________________________________Date:________

Week 2 of 4: One and Two Digit Addition

Day: Wednesday

Goals/Rationale:

1. After completion of the lesson, students will be able to add two groups of   manipulatives (one with a one digit number and one with a two digit number) to find a sum.

2. After completion of the lesson, students will be able to write the addition problem correctly, vertically aligned.

Focus Content Area:  Addition, Adding a one digit number to a two digit number.

NCTM Standards:

K –2 Number & Operations

Understand meanings of operations and how they relate to one another: understand various meanings of addition and subtraction of whole numbers and the relationship between the two operations; understand the effects of adding and subtracting whole numbers.

Compute fluently and make reasonable estimates: develop fluency with basic number combinations for addition and subtraction.

Materials:

• Dry Erase Board (one for each pair of students)
• Dry Erase Marker (one for each pair of students)
• Chalk
• Chalkboard

Introduction:

Students are seated on the carpet.  We have been learning and practicing single digit addition, so now we  are going to begin learning how to add a single digit number to a two digit number.  I will put 1 +10 vertically aligned on the board.  The one will have on object next to it and the ten will have ten objects next to it.  "Let's count these objects."  We will count the objects separately and then count them all together.  "Who can help me add these together based on what we just counted?" I will allow a student to aid me in adding the number correctly.  I will explain the procedure of adding these two numbers together.

Procedures:

1. We will continue to do some examples as a class until the students are somewhat comfortable with the idea.

2. The students will break into pairs and receive a dry erase board, marker, eraser, and set of colored magnets (one each pair).

3. The pairs will find a place to sit and work together on adding one digit numbers to two digit numbers.  The teacher will put several practice problems on the board and circulate around the room to ensure the students are on task and everything is clear.  The students will be encouraged to make up their own problems and ask questions if they are confused.

(Each day of the week, the teacher adds a new center to the center rotation based on the lesson taught that day.)

New Center

How to do it: Following the lesson, the dry erase board/magnets center will be added to the math center rotation for the week.  When the students get to this center, they will draw a card from a bag.  Each card has a horizontally aligned addition problem.  The student will write vertically and solve the addition problem on the card.

Conclusion:

At the end of Center rotation, the students will each clean up their area.  As a "pass" to the next subject, each student will have to write an addition problem adding a one and two digit number on a sheet of paper and hand it in to the teacher.

Assessment:

Informal assessment will be the primary assessment of the lesson.  The teacher will monitor the students' participation in the activity and new center and answer any questions.

Week 2 Assessment Rubric

Since the activities are primarily center-based, the assessment for the daily and weekly work will be primarily informal.  At each center, the students will record their results on a worksheet provided for them.  This completed worksheet will be their "proof" of completing and participating in the center.  They will receive credit for the worksheets they complete.  When possible the teacher will monitor and record observations of the students' participation in each of the centers.  At the end of the week (Friday) the students will be given a worksheet to complete of the type of problems (adding one digit numbers to two digit numbers) they have learned and practiced for the week.  This will not be a "time test," the students will be allowed to use the time necessary for them to finish.  Below is a rubric on how each mode of assessment will be recorded.

 Credit Center Worksheets Teacher Observations/Participation End of Week Review Sheet Full (5pts) The worksheet is complete and accurate. The student participates 95 to 100% of the time during center work and the main lesson. The student completes the sheet with 90-100% accuracy. Partial (3pts) The worksheet is partially completed and somewhat accurate. The student participates at least 50% or more of the time in center work and the main lesson. The student completes the sheet with 60 to 89% accuracy. None/Incomplete (0 pts) The worksheet is incomplete or not handed in at all. The student does not participate at all in either the center work or the main lesson. The student does not complete the sheet or completes the sheet with little to no accuracy.

Week 3 of a 4Week Unit: Addition & Subtraction
Topic: Introduction to Subtraction of Single-Digit Numbers

Centers will be established the day they are listed under and remain part of the center rotation for the remainder of the week.  The centers will build upon each other as the week progresses. The students will be able to access these math centers at the end of the week, and will be able to practice their newly acquired subtraction skills as they participate in the learning centers during classroom “free time.”

*Monday: M&M’s - The first day of the school week will serve as a "transition" for students from addition of single-digit to multi-digit numbers to the subtraction of single-digit numbers. On this day, students will listen to a modeled "teacher read-aloud" of the M&M's Counting Book. This book incorporates elements of simple single-digit addition and subtraction, and provides a smooth transition between the two mathematical operations. After reading this book, students will be paired into groups of two, and will be given a small bag of plain "M&M" chocolate candies (one bag per group). The students will then model the addition and subtraction operations as they are read from the M&M’s Counting Book during a second reading (done by the teacher). To assess the extent to which the students understand simple subtraction problems done with M&M candies, the teacher will write several simple subtraction problems on the chalkboard, and will allow for students to use their M&M candies to solve the problems at their desks.  After teaching this lesson, the teacher will place the M&M’s Counting Book and several packets of M&M candies in the classroom for students to access as a learning center throughout the week during classroom “center time.”

*Tuesday: Roll Dice - For the second day of “subtraction of single-digit numbers,” the students will play a subtraction math “game” with a die, as they will take turns rolling a die two times (to reveal two numbers on each roll). The students will write the larger of the two numbers on the top of a piece of paper, and will write the smaller of the two numbers underneath the larger number. Then the students will subtract the two numbers to reach their “difference.” The students will complete this exercise in pairs, and will demonstrate their knowledge of subtraction to the teacher by rolling the die two times for the teacher, and subtracting the two numbers to reach their “difference” (a “show-me” form of assessment).  After teaching this lesson, the teacher will place several dice, sheets of white paper, and pencils in the classroom to create a learning center in which students can play “Roll Dice” during classroom “center time.”

*Wednesday: Yummy Gummy Subtraction -  For the third day of the school week, students will participate in a subtraction lesson entitled, “Yummy Gummy Subtraction,” in which they will count out gummy bear candies to solve simple single-digit subtraction problems (please see the attached lesson plan for complete details of this activity!).

*Thursday: Dry Erase Boards - On the fourth day of this school week, students will begin to solve simple single-digit subtraction problems independently, as they will solve math problems at their desks by writing the entire problem (and answer!) on dry-erase boards. The teacher will solve the problems at the chalkboard, while students work independently at their desks, and the teacher will assess students’ understanding of the manner in which to write and solve single-digit subtraction problems by reading the answers that the students provide on their individual dry-erase boards (very informal assessment). This activity will help students to practice and review the subtraction skills learned earlier in the week without putting students “on the spot” in front of the class (in the event that they do not yet know how to correctly solve single-digit subtraction problems).  After teaching this lesson, the teacher will place several dry-erase boards and colored markers (appropriate for use on a dry-erase board) in the classroom to create a learning center in which students can create and solve their own simple subtraction math problems during classroom “center time.”

*Friday: Math Bingo - For this final day of the school week, students will participate in a math game that will help them to review the subtraction skills that they have developed over the preceding days of mathematics instruction. To begin, students will be paired into teams of two players. The students will be given a set of game cards, with a single digit (between 0 and 9) written on each card, a set of colored game chips, and a large “Bingo” math card (with each square on this card containing a number between 0 and 9, too). The students will take turns drawing cards from the game card pile and will then choose two squares on the “Bingo” math card that could be subtracted to make a difference equaling the same number on the chosen game card. The student will then cover his/her two “Bingo” card squares with colored game chips, and the first student to fill an entire row (vertically, horizontally, or diagonally) with game chips will win the game! For example, if a student draws a game card with the number “8” on it from the game card pile, he/she could cover squares on the “Bingo” card of “9” and “1” for that particular turn (since 9-1=8). There will be no assessment for this lesson, as it will serve as a review to students of the skills that they have learned throughout the week, and will hopefully help students to become “creative” in their problem-solving approaches!  After teaching this final lesson of the week, the teacher will place several “Math Bingo” cards, a pile of game cards, and a bag of colored game chips in the classroom for students to play the “Math Bingo” game during classroom “center time.”

*Assessment for the Week:  Daily assessments have been outlined under each daily activity/lesson.  Many of the assessments for the daily activities are informal “show me” assessment methods.  Therefore, no additional assessment rubrics or worksheets have been attached for the activities of this week!

Week 3 of 4 Week Unit: Single Digit Subtraction

Day: Wednesday (a lesson in single-digit subtraction)

Goals/Rationale:  Upon completion of this lesson, students will have participated in an activity in which they will count out different numbers of gummy bear candies, and will practice subtracting numbers of gummy bears as they are “taken away” from the initial number. Students will also practice solving single-digit subtraction problems during this lesson (i.e. one-digit minus one-digit subtraction problems).

Focus Content Area: Subtraction; Subtraction of single-digit numbers to obtain a single-digit answer

NCTM Standards: K-2 Number & Operations

“Understand meanings of operations and how they relate to one another: understand various meanings of addition and                                                            subtraction of whole numbers and the relationship between the two operations; understand the effects of adding and subtracting whole numbers. Compute fluently and make reasonable estimates: develop fluency with basic number combinations for addition and subtraction.”

Materials:

• Several bags of colored “gummy bear” candies
• Chalkboard/dry-erase board (for teacher use)
• Chalk/markers (for teacher use)

Introduction:  The teacher will open the lesson by administering small bags of gummy bear candies to the students in his/her class. The students will be given their own bag of candies with which to complete the activity. The teacher will remind students that the candies are not to be eaten at this time in the lesson, but that the candies will be consumed at a later time!

Procedures: Next, the teacher will use a piece of chalk or a marker to write a simple single-digit subtraction problem on the chalkboard/dry-erase board (i.e. 6-3 =). The teacher will instruct the students to count out six gummy bear candies from their candy bags, and will then ask the students to take three of those gummy bear candies away from the initial pile of six candies. The teacher will ask the students, “How many gummy bears are left?” The students will complete many single-digit subtraction problems (i.e. 7-4, 8-3, 4-2, etc.), using the gummy bear candies in their candy bags to solve the mathematical
problems, while the teacher solves the problems at the board. Teachers may want to consider using an overhead projector on which they can place the colored gummy bears to demonstrate and model the subtraction problems to the students, while the students solve the same problems at their desks. This teaching approach would benefit “visual” learners, who would be able to clearly “see” the gummy bear candies as they are placed into piles and subtracted to make a “difference!”

New Center:

How to do it:  Following the lesson, the teacher will place several bags of gummy bear candies and index cards with sample single-digit    subtraction problems written on each index card in the designated “Math” areas of the classroom.  This will become a new math learning center, and students will be allowed to choose index cards and solve the subtraction problems with gummy bear candies during “free time” in the classroom.  However, the teacher must stress to her students that the center will be taken away if gummy bear candies begin to “mysteriously disappear,” as the students should be actively working on math problems during this time, rather than simply eating candy from the math center!

Conclusion:  To end this lesson, the teacher will inform the students that they may eat their manipulatives (the gummy bear candies)!

Assessment: The teacher will assess the extent to which the students understand how to use mathematics manipulatives to solve
simple single-digit subtraction problems by asking the students to solve several subtraction problems independently at their desks (with the gummy bear candies). The teacher will walk around the room as the students are solving the subtraction problems, and will ask the children to write the answers (differences) to the subtraction problems on a sheet of notebook paper. This method of assessment will be fairly anonymous and will prevent students who are still confused about how to subtract numbers from becoming embarrassed when solving problems in front of their peers.

Week 4 of 4 Week Unit: Integration

Math Activities for WEEK 4: Integration

Week 4 is when all of the skills and objectives from the previous three weeks will be integrated so students can connect their addition skills to their subtraction skills.  Students will be able to use both addition and subtraction in all of the activities planned for the week. These activities will be done with the entire class working together. They will continue to review the math centers that they learned previously in the week. On Friday, students will be given a short test to assess their addition and subtraction skills. This test will be based on all of the centers they have done in the last three weeks.

Monday: Boxed Ball Throw- Teacher will prepare a box that has several separate compartments (such as a box to sell jars in). Each separate compartment will have a number on it from 0-9. The teacher will also make a half and half spinner that has an addition sign on one side and the subtraction side on the other. Students will stand in line and throw two beanbags into separate compartments. The students will then spin the spinner to find out what operation they will perform on the numbers. They will record their work on worksheets provided. There will also be a scorekeeper who tallies correct answers. There may be a time limit enforced on answers if needed. Whoever has the most tally marks, wins! Assessment for the boxed ball throw will be to check to see if the student recorded their equations for each throw and that their answers were right.

Tuesday: Subtraction Action! - The students will play a subtraction game using numbers 1 through 19. First, they will be put into groups of 4. The teacher then gives students one number. Each group has to come up with as many subtraction problems as possible that get that number for an answer in one minute. After that minute, each group will get turns to share problems they came up with. They will get one point for every problem they share. However, no problems can be repeated and they must be problems that they had written down. If a group gives an incorrect problem or gives a problem that was already given, they lose a point.  The group with the most points at the end of a predetermined amount of rounds WINS! Then, the students can find addition problems that result in the same number and play the game again! Assessment for this activity will be informal. If students are actively participating and working cooperatively in groups they will have reached the lesson objective.

Wednesday: Counting Wildflowers- The book Counting Wildflowers by Bruce McMillan is uses as the basis for this lesson.  After reading this book to students, the teacher will make up several problems to solve using the book as a context. Each page has a different number of particular flowers on each page. Some pages contain two types of flowers and these pages in easily be converted into equations. Ask students how many green flowers and how many red flowers are on this page? How many total flowers are there on this page? In groups, students can also figure out how many flowers there are in the entire book.  Students can then make their own illustration to an addition or subtraction story problem about two kinds of flowers. Their illustrations will serve as the assessment for this lesson. If students have written a correct equation and shown an accurate picture to match their equation, they will have reached the objective of the lesson. If not, they will be asked to correct their mistakes or do the illustrations over.

Thursday: Doughnut Race- Before beginning, teacher will make two “doughnuts” out of white poster board with 12 numbers written along the inside circles of each doughnut.  These doughnuts will be taped to the board. Two students will compete against each other, one at each doughnut. The teacher will roll a die and that number will go into the middle of the doughnut. Then, the teacher will spin the addition/subtraction spinner to tell students which operation they will be doing. The students will race to put the answers for each of the twelve numbers on the outside of the circle. Whoever finishes first, with all correct answers WINS! The winner can stay until an opponent beats them. Assessment for this game will also be informal. If students are actively participating and engaged, they will have met the objective of the lesson. If they are missing a high amount of problems on their turn, they will need extra help with practicing their basic subtraction and addition facts before moving on to the next mathematical concept.

Week 4 of 4 Week Unit: Integration

Day: Friday

Goals/Rationale:

1. After completion of the lesson, students will be able to use actual and virtual pan balances to show different subtraction and addition equations.

2. After completion of this lesson, students will be able to explain how a subtraction problem can be reversed into an addition problem and be able to write both equations.

Focus Content Area:  Addition and Subtraction using a balance

NCTM Standards:

K –2 Number & Operations

Understand meanings of operations and how they relate to one another: understand various meanings of addition and subtraction of whole numbers and the relationship between the two operations; understand the effects of adding and subtracting whole numbers.

Compute fluently and make reasonable estimates: develop fluency with basic number combinations for addition and subtraction.

Materials:

• 6 Pan Balances
• 120 Connecting Cubes
• Computers with Internet Access
• “It’s A Balancing Act” Worksheets

Procedure:

1.      Display a pan balance and review with the students how it operates. Explain that when the scale balances, both sides have the same value.

2.       Ask a volunteer to place 7 connecting cubes in the left pan of the balance beam and 4 connecting cubes on the other side. Ask the students how many connecting cubes are needed on the lighter side so that the scale balances. How would you explain to a younger child how to make the sides balance?

3.      Accept and model all student responses. When the response “3” is given, ask the children what question “3” answers. [How many more than 4 is 7?] Then ask them to record the answer using the equation form 7 – 4 = 3. Ask if they know what addition sentence would also fit the situation. [3 + 4 = 7 or 4 + 3 = 7.] Continue with other weights until the students are comfortable with the process. Suppose you put 7 connecting cubes on the left hand side of the balance and 3 connecting cubes on the right hand side. How would you balance the scale by adding cubes? What equation tells what you did?

4.      Divide the students into pairs and give each pair a die. Assign each child one side of the pan balance. Tell individuals to roll the die, read the number of dots on the upward face, and place that number of connecting cubes on their side of the balance. Then have partners work together to balance the scale by adding connecting cubes in a different color. They should record the subtraction equation that shows what they did. Have them repeat the activity several times. Choose one equation that you wrote when you played the game. How does this equation show what you did? Can you write another

5.      Now call the class together and demonstrate how to use the online balance at illuminations.nctm.org/mathlets/shapebalance/index.html. Assign some students to work with this site. [Because the shapes represent different values, advise the students to use only one shape as they explore with the online balance.]

6.      While some children are using the online balance, others can play “What’s in the Bag?” To start the game, provide pairs of children with a pan balance, a paper bag, and some connecting cubes. Assign one child to go first, placing up to 10 connecting cubes in the bag and placing the bag on the left side of the scale. Then that child will place up to 10 loose connecting cubes on the right side. The other child is to add connecting cubes to the lighter side until the scale balances. Then each child writes subtraction and addition equations to describe the situation. Have them repeat the activity several times, switching roles each time. How did you find out haw many connecting cubes were in the bag?

Assessment:

Showing the teacher that they understand the concepts of subtraction and addition using a pan balance scale by answering the following questions individually will assess students informally:

“Show Me Test”

·        If I put 10 cubes on one side of the balance and 5 on the other side, how many cubes do you need to subtract from the right side to make the scale balance? Show me on the balance. Show me on paper.

·        How many could I add to the left side to make it balance? Show me on the balance. Show me that equation on paper.

·        Place a paper bag with 6 cubes in it on the scale.  Can you make this scale balance for me? Show me the addition and subtraction equation for what you just did.

Boxed Ball Throw

First Throw   Circle Action   Second Throw   Answer

Throw #1 Equation     ___  ----  +  ___ =   ___

Throw #2 Equation     ___  ----  +  ___ =   ___

Throw #3 Equation     ___  ----  +  ___ =   ___

Throw #4 Equation     ___  ----  +  ___ =   ___

Throw #5 Equation     ___  ----  +  ___ =   ___

Throw #6 Equation     ___  ----  +  ___ =   ___

Throw #7 Equation     ___  ----  +  ___ =   ___

Throw #8 Equation     ___  ----  +  ___ =   ___

Addition and Subtraction Centers Quiz

# Name:  ________________

Please complete the following four problems:

She has  _____spots on her left wing and ______spots on her

right wing. That’s all I saw.

How many spots are there in all? _______

If you rolled these two dice in the addition dice game, how

many points would you have?   _______________

3. M&Ms Subtraction Center

# If someone ate all of your RED M&Ms, how many M&Ms would

you have left?  ____________

Write the SUBTRACTION equation that shows your problem:

_______   ----   ________   =

4. Counting Flowers Activity

## How many more red flowers are there than purple flowers? _______

Show the SUBTRACTION equation that shows this problem:

________ ----  __________ =  _________

Assessment

Assessment is an essential part of achieving a meaningful unit plan.  In planning our unit, assessment is included in our daily scheduling.  Throughout the entire four weeks of planning, we use both informal and formal assessment to measure the success and comprehension of our students.  In the first week, the students will be informally assessed through their independent work throughout the week.  However, the students will be formally evaluated using the grids and other manipulative used throughout the week.  In the second week, worksheets will be used to formally examine the students understanding of the subject matter.  Informally, the students will use peer support, monitoring by the teacher, and data in a computer program.  In the third week, students will be assessed informally primarily through the usage of centers.  The teacher will monitor the students’ understanding by supporting their learning in each center.  On the contrary, worksheets will also be used formally to assess the student’s knowledge of the theme.  During the final week, worksheets will be formally used to assess the students.  Scaffolding questions will informally gauge their comprehension.  In closing, the assessment used during this math unit plan varies in an attempt to comply with different learning styles.  The students will predominantly be engaged through independent work.  Subsequently, informal assessment is a crucial element of determining each student’s comprehension of the desired skills.  However, other formal assessments will be incorporated, such as worksheets, to give the teacher a visible implication of each student’s conception of the unit plan.